Saturday, January 18, 2020
This case study is related with the selection process- the process of selection is about choosing the right people for the right job. In this case we assume that we have already chosen interview as an appropriate instrument to measure candidateÃ¢â¬â¢s performance in selection criteria. Our task will be to prepare right questions for the candidates that let us predict the most adequate candidate for the job. Bitstream is a software company that has identified an opportunity to develop and market a new product. The company develops digitalized type fonts for display type font for display screens and technology. Their revenues come from retail sales and OEM sales. Jim Sole, the brand new president was hired in 1992 to substitute the former president, the founder of the company. Jim was a very successful professional and had much great experience in this area. Jim found the organization needing some changes, like a reorganization of the structure, a clear clarification of the short/term goals and a need to enhance the teamwork within the company. These problems would be solved with reorganization of the bonus plan they have, and to delegate decisions to the employees, to make them have the need to have responsibilities and decision making power. This company had grown at a rate of 25% and had a forecast of future growth at 15%. The regular growth, plus a 15% nominal turnover in the company shows that almost 40% of people from one year to another are new. They come up with the idea of developing a network print manager, related to the work they do in the printing environment. This new product would handle printing times, printing queues or even different specifications of the work to be printed. It requires already market-existing technology but also innovation made by the company. There is a new project in the hand of the company and is a great eager to the appearance of this product in this market, and is known that there is a market segment to this product easily identifiable. To complete this task correctly, Jim Sole started looking for the right person to fill the gap of the new project manager. He talked with his friend Peter Dromeshauser, an executive recruiter (Ã¢â¬Å"Head Hunter) and gave him some indications concerning the job. Peter then come up with 4 names that we are going to analyze in the following. CRITERIA FOR FILLING THE POSITION: There are some aspects of selection criteria like checking the individualÃ¢â¬â¢s personality cross match with the requirement so for this Jim Sole can do following things. Conduct a test for job with required specifications Job requirement can be objectively evaluated in matrix/tabulated formed and personalities of each individual could be assessed based on test interview and questionnaires. Primary task would then confine to select the test for candidate. This test should be planned with industrial psychologist and may contain test interview or test questionnaire. Requirement for job has been 1. Candidate should be able to imbibe the culture of organization and in BITSTREAM there was problem that due to talented employee it became a political place and sometime became difficult to align them to organization goals. 2. Since it is mentioned in case that for sales and marketing jobs it had been a hard task to verify their qualities to handle the organization with new plans and achieve set target for sales. 3. Before going to further selection procedure Jim can reject individuals by having evaluated some preliminary criteria. E.g. Salary expected after negotiation, would they like to work with emerging companies. 4. Jim can formulate a questionnaire specifically evaluating the requirementÃ of job; he wanted to be in employee. This includes better decision maker, better understanding of existing network, aggressive in strategies etc. 5. Content of questionnaire and test interview should be to evaluate how individual will react to particular situation, analytical questions related to human relationship management, related to target achievement in sales, new product launch. This would help to assess their individual qualification and experience with respect to their requirement much better. To ensure that the interview will be valid we first review job specification and develop Ã¢â¬Å"checklistÃ¢â¬ with relevant criteria for the job. According to the CVs we have received we can then register our assessment relative to each of the important job dimensions. Trough the reading of this case, we are given a series of indications that show the key criteria to fill the position. Therefore, we found pertinent main points to characterize the four candidates, and gave a scale in terms of importance to them, to have a general overview of their qualities and fitting to the job. * Relation with Novel *Entrepreneurial skill (flexibility, intellectual curiosity, risk taking) * Experience in new Launch * VAR Experience * Networking Experience *Salary *Team work * Relation with Novel Criteria: SALARY- Encompasses a simple yes or no answer. It is acknowledged that Bitstream offers up to $120,000 in wages. This includes $80,000 in salary, $40,000 for bonus potential plus stock options from the company. This is perceived as the highest bid to offer to candidates since it was seen adequate to the market reality. Additionally, a higher offer could disrupt the salary structure of the firm. ENTREPRENEURIAL SKILL- Within this terminology we consolidated 3 major characteristics that the company looks for: Intellectual curiosity, flexibility and risk taking. This means that we look for a person who is open minded and willing to learn, who responds well to any given environmental change while regarding risk as a challenge. TEAMWORK- Is the ability to work with other people in order to achieve a common goal. This means that it is necessary to partially sacrifice personal ambition and goals. DECISION MAKING- Regarded to be one of the most important attributes in business management, especially in small organizations. It is the ability to Ã¢â¬Å"make the callÃ¢â¬ and it requires a lot of self confidence, knowledge and courage. EXPERIENCE IN NEW LAUNCH- This job will require someone who has experience in the distribution channel. The product needs to be in the right time at the right place. A good Communication channel is also necessary since we will be introducing a new product with a new set of characteristics where advertising and promotion play an important role, therefore making marketing knowledge a valuable tool. VAR AND NETWORK CHANNELS- VAR (value added retail) and Network channels are important since it is the working tool. VAR will be the active channel that the company is going to use, while network channel is the background of the companies activity Those grades presented in front of the topics are the top punctuation the candidates can have and give a rate of importance we have given to them. Mr. Mitchell was discarded by us because of the need of a higher salary, which could be a problematic issue with other employees and create a bad environment. Although he has a very impressive CV and many good managerial, social and entrepreneurial characteristics the salary issue is related with the well-being of the company, and therefore it is of our opinion he must be discarded. Adding, he might be the older of the four candidates (according to the year of finishing degree), and as he is working in a big company, he might not have the experience of small company relations and procedures, a point Jim referred would be important.
Thursday, January 9, 2020
Things You Won't Like About Best Research Essay Topics and Things You Will Creating a topic all on your own is quite mind-torturing. So, here are a few suggestions, collected and listed from the very best inventory. It is possible to pick topics from assorted lists of ready themes. You will be assigned a topic, or your professor will allow you to select your own. Top Choices of Best Research Essay Topics When writing an important composition, it's recommended to pick contradictive topics. To compose a strong argumentative essay, students should start by familiarizing themselves with a number of the common, and frequently conflicting, positions on the research topic so they can write an educated paper. To compose a fantastic argumentative essay the students first must investigate several sides of the argument, allowing them to make an educated stance. There are lots of aspects about a sport which can be argued in an essay. Ultimately, now that you're prepared to work on your paper, we wish to remind you of the value of appropriate essay structure. Argumentative writings is a particular sort of a paper. At the exact same time, it also needs to be simple to research, that way you'll discover evidence to support claims you make. You have to discover good evidence to strengthen your ideas together with examples to illustrate the evidence. Yearly driving tests ought to be mandatory for the initial five years after obtaining a license. Each nursing research paper includes a free bibliography and totally free research paper sources. The more research you can do in order to secure better at your upcoming profession, the better. With our company, your assignment will acquire high marks not based on the argumentative essay topics you select. When it has to do with writing an argumentative essay, the most essential point to do is to select a topic and an argument that you may really get behind. In case you have any questions, don't be afraid to get in touch with us and we'll contact you in a blink of an eye! A great topic will allow it to be simpler to pursue the purpose of an argumentative essay, which is, evidently, the whole investigation of the problem you speak about. The key to pick out a very good topic for an argumentative essay is to select a subject where there's a lot of debates on topics or stances. The Key to Successful Best Research Essay Topics The aim of such essays isn't to demonstrate your knowledge, yet to exhibit the important thinking and analytical skills. There is a variety of of essays, and every one of them is challenging in a different way. In this kind of situation, it's more convenient to discover ready-made essays and use them as an example. An argumentative essay is a certain sort of ac ademic writing. If you must write your whole essay in 1 day, do your very best to give yourself breaks so you don't burn out. Instead of just immediately writing about your argumentative essay topic, you should first think about what it is that you're likely to put back on your paper through a procedure of brainstorming and pre-writing. To ensure your paper stands out you are able to also, benefit from choosing an unusual subject. Understanding how to compose a strong argumentative paper will help you advance your very own argumentative thinking. In choosing your topic, it's frequently a good notion to start with a subject which you already have some familiarity with. It's not sufficient to pick a topic which everybody agrees on. When you are requested to choose a great topic for your argument, start with something you're familiarized with. Deciding on an emotional topic is also an excellent idea.
Wednesday, January 1, 2020
In Does College Still Pay, Lisa Barrow explores that even though the college tuition costs are increasing rapidly, is college still a good investment. Barrow states that college still worth wild and there is no evidence of a downward trend to students attending college due to increasing college tuition. Barrow also claims that by getting a bachelor s degree today, a college student can expect to regain all of their investments they have put towards their education within 10 years after graduation. Claims similar to these are found in Robert B. Archibald s The Anatomy of College Tuition. In this article, states that colleges have discount tuition for some students base on their parents income, thus putting a pressure on publishing tuition prices and causing them to increase. Barrow describes that in the 1980s, the value of a college education began to grow rapidly. She also states that with a bachelor s degree, the earnings began to increase compared to a worker with only a high school diploma. She says, that somewhere between the 1990s and 2000s, the college tuition rates has increased extremely rapidly while the wage gap has slowdown (1). She claims that due to the economy, universities has raised their tuition so dramatically to where the wage gap cannot keep up, thus, lower wages. This causes Barrow to wonder if attending college is even worth the cost of attending. To better understand, Barrow claims that due to the rapid increase in the cost of tuition has aShow MoreRelatedIs College Still A Good Investment?1023 Words Ã |Ã 5 PagesIs going to college still a good investment? For most students, the answer is a resounding yes. Upon graduating high school, you are now entering adulthood and officially preparing for the future. Many individuals choose to pursue higher education by attending a two or four year college. College offers many benefits such as networking, studying abroad, and even finding the love of your life. However, the overall objective is to graduate. Finishing is important because you have more opportunitiesRead MoreCollege Education Essay1364 Words Ã |Ã 6 PagesIs College Still Worth it ? Since their childrens infancy parents have always encouraged their children to go to college and become a professional. But in this new age economic crisis, is college really worth it? Tuition costs are rising to a criminally high price has everyone arguing. Is college really a good investment? Well in a very short way, yes it is. An investment that makes you 500,000 to a million dollar lifetime payout is uncomparable. In the end, today an average college graduate willRead MoreIs College Worth It? Essay example598 Words Ã |Ã 3 PagesIs a college education really worth the investment of time, money and energy? Is a college degree really worth going deep in student loan debts? Higher education is a considerable gamble. For many people it works out well, but many of the other college graduates have found themselves completely unable to get a great job in this economy with a huge amount of debt on their shoulders. The entire system encourages students to take out any kindand amount of loans they need without worrying how they willRead MoreWith Tuition Costs at an all Time High, Is College Really Worth It?872 Words Ã |Ã 4 Pagesinfancy, parents are always encouraging their children to go to college and become a professional. But in this new age economic crisis, is college really worth it? Tuition costs are rising to a criminally high price have everyone arguing. Is college really a good investment? Well in a very short way, Yes it is. An investment that makes you 500,000 to a million dollar lifetime payout is uncomparable. In the end, today an average college graduate will make far more over the course of his or her lifeRead MoreIs An American College Education Still? Worth It?1465 Words Ã |Ã 6 PagesIs An American College Education Still Ã¢â¬ËWorth ItÃ¢â¬â¢? One of the realities of the past several decades is that society has come to place an increasing level of emphasis upon the importance of education. Whereas it has been understood for decades that education is an integral component of the overall level of success that a person might hope to experience during their lifetime, the necessity of each and every individual striving for a college degree has been a more and more defining aspects of the driveRead MoreAnalysis Of The Documentary Ivory Tower By Andrew Rossi1641 Words Ã |Ã 7 Pagesthey acquire a college education and degree, the world is their oyster. The documentary Ã¢â¬Å"Ivory TowerÃ¢â¬ , directed by Andrew Rossi, calls that whole notion into question. The biographical film opens at the University of Harvard, the nations oldest institution of higher learning, on move-in day. Hundreds of new students and their parents flood the campus grounds of one of AmericaÃ¢â¬â¢s most prestigious universities. From there, in order to provide a complete overview of the complete college experience, severalRead MoreThe Treadmill Of Production And Consumption960 Words Ã |Ã 4 Pagesmaterial goods. Because money is so important, most people would prefer to have more of it than less of it. The world considers the highest paying jobs, or good paying jobs, to be the most common way of acquiring money, and thus, more material possessions. Along with this, people have a tendency to invest their own resources with expectation of maximizing their return on that initial investment, or maximizing profits. Time and money are the most powerful resources we have for investment. People investRead MoreHow Investment Banking Is Like Doing Drugs1251 Words Ã |Ã 6 PagesAustin Thoreson Marcy Toews English One 06 May 2015 Ã¢â¬Å"Doing investment banking is like doing drugs: on your good trips you dance in clouds of marshmallows, surrounded by beautiful women (or men) serving you fruit under canopies. On your bad trips you scratch your eyes out and jump off buildings.Ã¢â¬ These are the words of Brian DeChesare, The founder of Mergers Inquisitions and Breaking Into Wall Street. As an investment banker you will work with companies, CEOs, CFOs to help grow their businessRead MoreHow Education Has Influenced Education992 Words Ã |Ã 4 PagesAs a result in 2013, about 19.9 million students were enrolled in colleges and universities in 2013, compared to 13.5 million in 1970, and 2.7 million in 1949 (US Census Bureau). The increasing numbers of students attending college shows how education has influenced on each student and their option of considering why they should attend college and become an educated person. Getting an education is important because in todayÃ¢â¬â¢s society most career paths require at least some education and trainingRead MoreIs Higher Education Worth the Price?1109 Words Ã |Ã 5 Pages Haendiges Engl-1010 6/23/13 Is Higher Education Worth the Price? A recent study shows that less than sixty percent of students can be graduate form four-year colleges. Interestingly, tuition of most of American colleges improves fast year by year. Beth Pinsker said in his article Ã¢â¬Å"The message that everyone should go to college does a disservice to the 60 percent of students who do not finish their degrees within six years, according to new research from Brookings Center on Children and Families
Tuesday, December 24, 2019
Today, the American people are obsessed with reality television. Television shows such as, So You Think You Can Dance and The Bachelorette are just two examples of the fifteen reality or unscripted shows that placed on the Top 20 Highest Rated Television Programs in 2010 (Carter). What Americans fail to realize is they too are the stars of their own reality television show. Although their actions are not being broadcasted to the rest of the country, American citizens are still being monitored by the government through wire taps, GPS locators and cameras. These are just a few examples of ways the American government is beginning to introduce Michel FoucaultÃ¢â¬â¢s idea of a utopia, called the Panopticon, into modern day American society.Ã¢â¬ ¦show more contentÃ¢â¬ ¦They eventually are able to expose the corrupt bill which in turn is not passed by the legislature. The corrupt ways that the National Security Agency conducted their surveillance is a prime example of FoucaultÃ¢â¬â¢s Panopticon. When the National Security Agency chose to place wire taps into Robert DeanÃ¢â¬â¢s home illegally, they exemplified FoucaultÃ¢â¬â¢s panoptic model. The wire taps used by the National Security Agency are prime examples of FoucaultÃ¢â¬â¢s Ã¢â¬Å"instrument of permanent, exhaustive, omnipresent surveillanceÃ¢â¬ (386). Furthermore, by the National Security Agency exercising the use of these instruments they are Ã¢â¬Å"capable of making all visible, as long as it could itself remain invisibleÃ¢â¬ (386-387). This illegal surveillance is just one way they exercise FoucaultÃ¢â¬â¢s Panopticon. Moreover, when the National Security Agency continues to punish Dean by convicting him of the murder of Hammersley they are exercising FoucaultÃ¢â¬â¢s Panopticon by Ã¢â¬Ë[undermining] the limits that are traced around the lawÃ¢â¬ (394). Enemy of the State excels at showing how the government can manipulate the law to suit their needs. Enemy of the State accurately portrays how the government surveillance functions in modern American society. The government is able to watch any given individual at any given time without the individual being aware they are being watched. Although Enemy of the State does to a certain extent demonstrate this, it doesShow MoreRelatedThe Epidemic of Teenagers Using Drugs1687 Words Ã |Ã 7 Pagesbrother for instance; he has struggled with drug addiction from the time he was a teenager into his early twenties. My brother Matthew started off smoking pot and drinking socially out of boredom. Then he found the drug crack cocaine to escape from reality as his world came crashing down around him. Once he found that drug he went overboard and started stealing electronics and pawning them for money to buy his drugs. From there he would also beg people for money and obtain it to get his fix. He wouldRead MoreCatch Us If You Can5211 Words Ã |Ã 21 Pagesgranda a social worker. Granda was not p leased with the idea of having a social worker. Rory was happy to finally get a home help who could look after his granda. Granda liked Val Jessup and said that she reminded him of Grace Kelly, a beautiful film star who turned into a princess. Both of them had fair hair. Rory informed Mrs Foley that they had a social worker and home help. Mrs Foley was pleased with this piece of news. During lunchtime, the baker informed Rory that something happened at the flatsRead MoreStylistic Potential of the English Noun16714 Words Ã |Ã 67 Pagesto the literary norms. Do we always stick to the rules while speaking in our native language? The answer will be no. Why do we break them? By doing this deliberately we may express our attitude to what we are saying. We must know the grammar to make effective word and stylistic choices when we speak and write.Ã At the same time, breaking grammar rules or conventions can be appropriate when rhetorical considerations of audience and purpose call for it.Ã For example, we dont use the same grammarRead Morewisdom,humor and faith19596 Words Ã |Ã 79 Pagesbut a sneeze of humor. Genuine humor is replete with wisdom.Ã¢â¬ Mark Twain, quoted in Opie Percival Read, Mark Twain and I (1940), 17. Ã¢â¬Å"Humor offers both a form of wisdom and a means of survival in a threatening world. It demands that we reckon with the realities of human nature and the world without falling into grimness and despair.Ã¢â¬ Roger Shattuck, The Banquet Years: The Origins of the Avant-Garde in FranceÃ¢â¬â1885 to World War I, rev. ed. (1968), 248. Ã¢â¬Å"Humor is, in fact, a prelude to faith;Read MoreManagement Course: MbaÃ¢Ëâ10 General Management215330 Words Ã |Ã 862 Pagesof pacesetter companies in the United States and throughout the world? How can companies renew and sustain those factors in the face of the business slowdowns and major fluctuations that challenge the longterm continuation of profitable earnings? As we continue to experience the twenty-first centuryÃ¢â¬â¢s economic, social, and political churning, how will these driving factors be influenced by the brutally competitive global economy in which organizations do not have any particular geographic identityRead MoreDeveloping Management Skills404131 Words Ã |Ã 1617 PagesWorksheet 661 APPENDIX I GLOSSARY 673 683 APPENDIX II REFERENCES NAME INDEX 705 709 713 SUBJECT INDEX COMBINED INDEX xvi CONTENTS P R E FA C E WhatÃ¢â¬â¢s New in This Edition? Based on suggestions from reviewers, instructors, and students we have made a number of changes in the eighth edition of Developing Management Skills. Ã¢â¬ ¢ Added new skill assessments in Chapter 1 and a new case in Chapter 3. Ã¢â¬ ¢ Revised parts of the book to reflect suggestions and feedback from instructors and students
Monday, December 16, 2019
string(70) " after very thorough inspection, the plant begins operation each day\." Report On Marketing Management KNÃ¢â¬â¢s (Marketing Mix) Submitted To: Madam Shumaila Dilawar Submitted By: Aneela Jabbar BB-08-15 Aqsa Mehmood BB-08-06 Arif Zafar BB-08-8 Rabeea Rafiq BB-08-33 Sahar Naveed BB-08-54 Sana Fatima Malik BB-08-64 Zobia Malik BB-08-19 Dedication We dedicate this work solely to our loving and supporting friends and teachers and those who have ever been praying for our success. Acknowledgements First and foremost, we would like to thank our Creator, Family and Friends for their undying love. We would never have come so far without them. We will write a custom essay sample on K Final Report or any similar topic only for you Order Now We would also like to take this opportunity to thank my teacher, Madam Shumaila Dilawar, for her insightful guidance. Last but not least, we would like to thank our friends at Institute of Management Sciences that have always been proved helpful. For everything that is right, credit goes to all of the above. For anything that is wrong, we are culpable. Preface Practical leaning is an essential part of my education and it is the specialty that distinct the department of IMS from others. To have deep understanding of the concepts, only theoretical knowledge does not provide the concrete base. In this report we have bridge that gap. The knowledge we acquired through this experience will be long lasting. Since we ourselves explored the field o work and analyzed different factors and variables. Introduction of KNÃ¢â¬â¢s KNÃ¢â¬â¢s, a founding pillar and beacon for PakistanÃ¢â¬â¢s Poultry Industry started in 1964 with a single minded objective of providing better nutrition for health and happiness of the nation. Building on years of poultry expertise and commitment to food-safety, KNÃ¢â¬â¢s integrated all poultry production activities under one umbrella to bring you safe and healthy chicken by managing and controlling all stages of production. The year 1964; Pakistan a young independent nation forging ahead towards a dream: self sufficiency in food production. Malnutrition remained a major problem and one out of four children died before attaining the age of five. 80% of ailing children were affected with diseases caused by protein, vitamin and mineral deficiency. Poultry production, the quickest and least expensive way of filling the protein gap was planned to overcome malnutrition. Backyard poultry farming had to graduate to a more professional level. January 1964, a young man, Khalil Sattar, still a college student, had the vision to foresee a need to establish a poultry farm. His interest led him to start a small broiler farm of 1,000 chicks. Little had he known this flock was to become the foundation stone of KNÃ¢â¬â¢s? This was the simple, inspired and nationalistic beginning of KNÃ¢â¬â¢s with a single-minded objective of providing better nutrition for Health and Happiness of the Nation. Poultry Breeding KNÃ¢â¬â¢s maintains layer and broiler parent stock populations in different regions of Pakistan. Layer parent stock farms are located in the south and broiler parents are bred in the colder mountainous northern region. Both types of parents are housed at isolated breeder farms. To ensure strict bio-security, all breeder farms work on the important principle of all-in-all-out to avoid multiple ages at any breeder farm. Breeding stock is housed in environment-controlled houses equipped with most modern ventilation, cooling and heating equipment. Some of the worldÃ¢â¬â¢s best performances have been achieved at KNÃ¢â¬â¢s. Strict bio-security measures are taken at all farms to reduce the risk of disease transmission through mechanically and physically transferred disease causative agents. Careful attention is paid to bird health, vaccination, weightage and selection to maintain healthy and uniform breeding flocks. Hatching-eggs are cooled down inside air conditioned, humidified egg-rooms, packed and dispatched in sanitized and environment-controlled vehicles to company owned hatcheries located throughout Pakistan. Hatching KNÃ¢â¬â¢s operates several strategically located hatcheries covering all day-old chick markets to ensure delivery of high quality layer and broiler day-old chicks to commercial farmers throughout Pakistan. All hatcheries are equipped with most modern cooling, heating and humidification systems to provide a uniform and consistent hatchery environment independent of varying outdoor weather conditions. Incubators from world-renowned manufacturers are installed at all hatcheries and their performance data is recorded and monitored by a computerized incubation monitoring system. Upon arrival from breeder farms, hatching-eggs are candled at all hatcheries to remove eggs, which may have cracked during transit. Sanitation and hygiene is enhanced by mechanically transferring eggs from one type of tray onto another until chicks are harvested from hatchers. Maximum care is exercised while handling, reconstituting and administering vaccines using proper techniques and modern equipment. To ensure chicks get off to the healthiest start and stay protected from viral diseases, they receive inject able and spray vaccinations at the hatchery. Day-old chicks are delivered to farmers in environment-controlled chick delivery vehicles to maintain quality during transit. After making deliveries, vehicles are washed and disinfected before entering the hatchery premises to avoid any risk of carrying disease causative agents back to the hatchery from the field. Feed Milling To ensure consistent performance with high standards, our chickens really live on a healthy and well balanced diet. It is based on: natural grain products such as corn, corn gluten, rice and wheat; oil seed meals such as soybean, canola and sunflower; fish; oyster shells supplemented with multi-vitamins and minerals. Feed is always tested by our quality assurance lab to ensure it is wholesome because KNÃ¢â¬â¢s does not compromise on quality. Feed is also supplied to our day-old chick customers and growers for realizing the profit potential of KNÃ¢â¬â¢s quality day-old chicks. Poultry Processing At our state-of-the-art poultry processing plant, only healthy chickens are used to produce high quality, safe and healthy chicken products. Chickens are Halal slaughtered by hand (Islamic Zabeeha) strictly according to The Shariah. After Halal slaughter, chickens are processed in the most hygienic and automated manner. During processing, the birds are washed inside out and our veterinarians constantly examine the birds to confirm they are wholesome. Cleaning is constant and each evening the entire operation is completely washed and sanitized. Only after very thorough inspection, the plant begins operation each day. You read "K Final Report" in category "Essay examples" All chickens pass through veterinary inspection to confirm they are wholesome. To keep a continuous check on quality, hygiene and food-safety, random samples are collected from the processing line for lab testing. Some chickens are prepared to ship whole; others are packed as bone-in cuts or boneless products. Products for quality and food-safety conscious institutions Ã¢â¬â such as hotels, restaurants, airlines, clubs and international restaurant chains Ã¢â¬â are cut according to their specific requirements and packed in bulk packaging. Products for retail are packed in KNÃ¢â¬â¢s branded packaging and individually weighed, adding another step to K quality control. Products are then blast frozen at a very low temperature of Ã¢â¬â30? C to ensure product freshness, taste and food-safety. Ready-to-Cook and Fully Cooked Products Some chickens are used for preparing our ready-to-cook and fully cooked chicken products using state-of-the-art meat preparation and production equipment. Choicest meat is carved and select ingredients are added to our premium chicken meat, for preparing flavorful high-quality products such as burger patties, nuggets and kababs. Our world-class value-added chicken products are individually quick frozen using Individual Quick Freezing (IQF) Technology. Distribution System and K Distribution stores Products are stored at -21? C to maintain freshness. Packed products are moved into K sanitized refrigerated trucks for distribution to ensure uncompromising quality control. K chicken products are available at K Chicken Stores and leading retailers and also delivered to quality and food-safety conscious institutions such as hotels, restaurants, airlines, clubs and international restaurant chains. Quality Assurance Lab K state-of-the-art Quality Assurance Lab monitors the entire integration process, from livestock to feed and on to preparation of ready-to-cook fully cooked products. The entire integration process is monitored and regulated to ensure K chicken products are wholesome, safe and healthy. K Poultry Diagnostic and Research Institute With the assistance of US Agency for International Development, K Poultry Diagnostic and Research Institute was established in collaboration with Pakistan Agricultural Research Council. It is a very well equipped and state-of-the-art disease diagnostic, feed and feed raw material testing laboratory which provides invaluable service to PakistanÃ¢â¬â¢s poultry industry through research and extension service in close coordination with K Advisory Service. Certifications Ã¢â¬ ¢KÃ¢â¬â¢s ensures food-safety by implementing the HACCP* (international food-safety) System to produce safe and healthy chicken chicken products. ( *HACCP (Hazard Analysis Critical Control Points) Ã¢â¬â pronounced Ã¢â¬ËhassapÃ¢â¬â¢Ã¢â¬â is an international food-safety system for preventing microbiological, chemical and physical contamination along the food supply chain. Ã¢â¬ ¢Quality Management System at KNÃ¢â¬â¢s is ISO 9001:2008 certified. Through this internationally recognized quality management system, KNÃ¢â¬â¢s is able to control and monitor quality specific factors, which ensure consistency in its products and services while assuring customer satisfaction. Ã¢â¬ ¢Chicken s are HALAL slaughtered by hand (Islamic Zabeeha) strictly according to The Shariah. KNÃ¢â¬â¢s slaughtering procedure has been assessed by Darul-Ifta ofJamia Ashrafia and Jamia Naeemia, both authentic institutions for granting Halal certification. Corporate Social Responsibility KNÃ¢â¬â¢s Advisory Service, a division of KNÃ¢â¬â¢s, provides invaluable service to customers and the industry through the NationÃ¢â¬â¢s widest network of sales, technical and extension service centersÃ¢â¬â¢. This division employs the nationÃ¢â¬â¢s largest team of veterinarians, nutritionist and highly experienced technical staff, and publishes technical bulletins, brochures, management guides and other advisory literature for customers, and also provides them with practical on-spot technical know-how. Seminars are organized in all major cities and rural poultry centers where local and foreign experts are invited to address poultry farmers on latest poultry developments. Free of charge vaccination and de-betaking service is extended to customers, and least-cost feed formulations are also provided to farmers. Technical training programmes for poultry farmers are regularly organized and training is also imparted for carrying out vaccination and de-betaking. Through the training process, KNÃ¢â¬â¢s has made a significant contribution to PakistanÃ¢â¬â¢s rural development. Tens of thousands of skilled and semi-skilled workers have been trained to provide service to industry, and to earn a livelihood for themselves and their families. Marketing Mix These are actually the 4 PÃ¢â¬â¢s of marketing. Marketing decisions generally falls into the following four controllable categories. Product Product is the actually offering by the company to its targeted customers which also includes value added stuff. Product may be tangible (goods) or intangible (services). While formulating the marketing strategy, product decisions include: Ã¢â¬ ¢What to offer? Ã¢â¬ ¢Brand name Packaging Ã¢â¬ ¢Quality Ã¢â¬ ¢Appearance Ã¢â¬ ¢Functionality Ã¢â¬ ¢Accessories Ã¢â¬ ¢Installation Ã¢â¬ ¢After sale services Ã¢â¬ ¢Warranty Price Price includes the pricing strategy of the company for its products. How much customer should pay for a product? Pricing strategy not only related to the profit margins but also helps in finding target customers. Pricing decision also influence the choice of marketing channels. Price decisions include: Ã¢â¬ ¢Pricing Strategy (Penetration, Skim, etc) Ã¢â¬ ¢List Price Ã¢â¬ ¢payment period Ã¢â¬ ¢Discounts Ã¢â¬ ¢Financing Ã¢â¬ ¢Credit terms Using price as a weapon for rivals is as old as mankind. But itÃ¢â¬â¢s risky too. Consumers are often sensitive for price, discounts and additional offers. Another aspect of pricing is that expensive products are considered of good quality. Place (Placement) It not only includes the place where the product is placed, all those activities performed by the company to ensure the availability of the product to the targeted customers. Availability of the product at the right place, at the right time and in the right quantity is crucial in placement decisions. Placement decisions include: Ã¢â¬ ¢Placement Ã¢â¬ ¢Distribution channels Ã¢â¬ ¢Logistics Inventory Ã¢â¬ ¢Order processing Ã¢â¬ ¢Market coverage Ã¢â¬ ¢selection of channel members Promotion Promotion includes all communication and selling activities to persuade future prospects to buy the product. Promotion decisions include: Ã¢â¬ ¢Advertising Ã¢â¬ ¢Media Types Ã¢â¬ ¢Message Ã¢â¬ ¢Budgets Ã¢â¬ ¢Sales promotion Ã¢â¬ ¢Personal selling Ã¢â¬ ¢Public relations Ã¢â¬ ¢Direct market ing As these costs are huge as compared to product price, so itÃ¢â¬â¢s good to perform a break-even analysis before allocating the budget. It helps in determining whether the new customers are worth of promotion cost or not. Product Features For customers psychological benefits represent certain benefits they perceive to receive when using the product though these may be difficult to measure and may vary by customer. These benefits address needs such as status within a group, risk reduction, sense of independence, and happiness. Such benefits are developed through promotional efforts that target customerÃ¢â¬â¢s internal makeup. Four basic objectives of absolute integrity, enthusiastic diligence, continuous improvement and high quality maintenance are at the core of all operations which provide an impelling urge for attaining perfection. Driven by its basic objectives in pursuit of perfection, KNÃ¢â¬â¢s is committed to have superior product and unmatched service through devoted people and consistent development K products K have different product lines, but we will discuss only a single product line which is Ready to Cook meal. This category includes: Ã¢â¬ ¢Nuggets Ã¢â¬ ¢Chappli kabab Ã¢â¬ ¢Burger patties Ã¢â¬ ¢Chicken tempura Ã¢â¬ ¢Kofta Ã¢â¬ ¢Combo wings Ã¢â¬ ¢Croquettes Ã¢â¬ ¢Haray bharay nuggets Ã¢â¬ ¢Hot tenders Ã¢â¬ ¢Fun nuggets K from the very beginning has focused on providing better nutrition for the health and happiness of the nation. Quality is very first priority that will make them build strong and profitable customer relationships. They are managing and controlling all stages of production in order to ensure 100% safe and healthy production of our product. Our product offers consumptions, attention to satisfy desire or need in the market. Level of Product Ã¢â¬ ¢ Core Benefit: providing the good taste. Ã¢â¬ ¢ Actual Product: our product includes all ingredients in packaging according to the core benefit. Ã¢â¬ ¢ Augmented Product: our product provide some benefits which are related to product just as recipe. Branding Branding involves decisions that establish an identity for a product with the goal of distinguishing it from competitorsÃ¢â¬â¢ offerings. In markets where competition is fierce and where customers may select from among many competitive products, creating an identity through branding is essential. It is particularly important in helping position the product (see discussion of product position) in the minds of the productÃ¢â¬â¢s target market Brand Names and Brand Marks At a very basic level branding is achieved through the use of unique brand names and brand marks. The brand name, which may be either the individual product name or a name applied to a group or family of products, is important for many reasons including suggesting what the product is or does (e. g. , Mop-and-Glow). The name is also what we utter when we discuss the product (i. e. , word-of-mouth marketing). The brand mark is a design element, such as a symbol (e. g. , Nike swoosh ), logo (e. g. , Yahoo! graphic), a character (e. g. , Keebler elves) or even a sound (e. g. , Intel inside sound), that provides visual or auditory recognition for the product. K brand Along with the developed brand identity and trust reposed by customers, K has established its name in international market as well. It is a well-developed and promoted brand. It is a strong brand which is leading to financial advantages through the concept of Brand Equity in which the brand itself becomes valuable. Packaging Nearly all tangible products (i. e. , goods) are sold to customers within a container or package that, as we will discuss, serves many purposes including protecting the product during shipment. In a few cases, such as with certain produce items, the final customer may purchase the product without a package but the produce marketer still faces packaging decisions when it comes to shipping to the store. Factors in Packaging Decisions Packaging decisions are important for several reasons including Ã¢â¬ ¢Protection Ã¢â¬â Packaging is used to protect the product from damage during shipping and handling, and to lessen spoilage if the project is exposed to air or other elements. Ã¢â¬ ¢Added Value Ã¢â¬â Packaging design and structure can add value to a product. For instance, benefits can be obtained from package structures that make the product easier to use while stylistic designs can make the product more attractive to display in the customerÃ¢â¬â¢s home Ã¢â¬ ¢Visibility Ã¢â¬â Packaging design is used to capture customersÃ¢â¬â¢ attention as they are shopping or glancing through a catalog or website. Ã¢â¬ ¢Distributor Acceptance Ã¢â¬â Packaging decisions must not only be accepted by the final customer, they may also have to be accepted by distributors who sell the product for the supplier. Ã¢â¬ ¢Cost Ã¢â¬â Packaging can represent a significant portion of a productÃ¢â¬â¢s elling price. Ã¢â¬ ¢Long Term Decision Ã¢â¬â When companies create a new package it is most often with the intention of having the design on the market for an extended period of time. In fact, changing a productÃ¢â¬â¢s packaging too frequently can have negative effects K packaging Each product is wrapped in butter paper, and then packed in sealed pl astic bags that are safe for health, and then finally packed in the box. Some chickens are prepared to ship whole; others are packed as bone-in cuts or boneless products. Products for retail are packed in KÃ¢â¬â¢s branded packaging and individually weighed, adding another step to KNÃ¢â¬â¢s quality control. Products are then blast frozen at a very low temperature of Ã¢â¬â30? C to ensure product freshness, taste and food-safety. Labeling Most packages, whether final customer packaging or distribution packaging, are imprinted with information intended to assist the customer. For consumer products, labeling decisions are extremely important for the following reasons. Ã¢â¬ ¢Labels serve to capture the attention of shoppers. The use of catchy words may cause strolling customers to stop and evaluate the product. Ã¢â¬ ¢The label is likely to be the first thing a new customer sees and thus offers their first impression of the product. Ã¢â¬ ¢The label provides customers with product information to aid their purchase decision or help improve the customerÃ¢â¬â¢s experience when using the product (e. g. , recipes). Ã¢â¬ ¢In some countries many products, including food and pharmaceuticals, are required by law to contain certain labels such as listing ingredients, providing nutritional information or including usage warning information. KNÃ¢â¬â¢s labeling ?KNÃ¢â¬â¢s label is to attract the attention of the customers. ?COLOUR is attractive sharp red which is eye catching. These are the things which are listed on the wrappers ?Ingredients ?Nutrition Facts ?Procedure Nuggets Nutrition Facts Serving Size: 5 pieces (110g) Amount per serving Calories 263 Calories from Fat 147 % Daily Value* Total Fat 16. 30g Total Carbohydrate 14. 2g Fibers 1. 98g Protein 14. 90g Salt 1. 6g25% 5% 8% 30% * % Daily Value based on 2000 Calorie diet. Your daily value may be higher or lower depending on your calorie needs. Procedure Appliances and utensils vary; adjust heating times accordingly. Do not defrost Karahi (Wok): Preheat oil to frying temperature (180Ã °C). Deep fry frozen Nuggets for 3 minutes, or until golden brown. Oven: Preheat oven to 230Ã °C. Bake frozen Nuggets on a baking sheet (turning halfway through baking) for 5 minutes, or until golden brown PRICING STRATEGIES Pricing is the monetary value of the benefit that a customer is paying to get that particular benefit. So a company is very careful in setting its prices. As we know that there are two types of new product pricing strategies Market skimming pricing Ã¢â¬ ¢Market penetration pricing For its product KNs have selected the market penetration pricing strategy. They apply this strategy to keep their product prices lower so that by doing this we attract a large numbers of buyers and also to gain large market shares. The reason for not using market skimming strategy is that as its product is an eatable product and there is no se nse of keeping high prices for an eatable product, because as KNs knows that skimming strategies are for luxury products. PRICE ADJUSTMENT STRATEGIES After penetrating into the market, KNs will adopt adjustment strategies in order to increase its sales and attract more customers. Basically these adjustment strategies are according to the taste, culture and the changing situation of the market. Following are the price adjustment strategies. Segmented pricing. Psychological pricing. Promotional pricing. Geographical pricing. International pricing. DISCOUNT AND ALLOWANCE PRICING KNs applies this strategy by giving quantity discount to its customers. Quantity Discount: KNs gives quantity discount by offering Ã¢â¬Å"buy one get one freeÃ¢â¬ offers. Besides this KNs also gives discount to those customers who will buy in bulk or in large quantity. Segmented pricing: KNs launched its product in almost all the parts of the country with almost the same prices. They segmented their product price in the following ways. Time pricing strategy: In time pricing KNs lowers its prices according to different seasons. It reduces prices in Ramadan season, as its demand is more in that season. Promotional pricing: This strategy involves temporary lowering of the prices of the product below the cost to increase the short run sales. KNs applies this strategy when any one of its competitor lower its product price in order to grab market shares. To compete with them it also lowers its product price so that it can retain its market shares. Geographic pricing: In Geographic pricing KNs adopts freight absorption strategy. Freight absorption strategy: KNs do not add freight charges to its product price in order to keep its product price lower, as its focus is to capture more customers. International pricing: As KNs is not yet internationally recognized so KNs do not set international prices for its products. KNs is only serving nationwide so it sets prices of its product nationally. PRICE CHANGES: Some time companies have to initiate price change after developing pricing strategies Because of different reasons, Price change could be a price cut or price increase. Initiating a Price Cut: KNs already set a low price for its product but it cuts price of its product if its sales will not increase accordingly, in that situation KNs will cut the price in order to increase sales and to capture market shares. Initiating a Price increase: Once KNs product achieved a position in a market and it sets a good image in the consumers mind and has a large number of potential buyers then KNs might increase its product price. But its aim is to give good quality product in an affordable price. KNs can initiate its product price when its product demand increases and KNs cannot supply according to the demand but INSHALLAH this situation will never come because KNÃ¢â¬â¢s has its own poultry and breeding farms. BuyerÃ¢â¬â¢s Reaction to Price Changes: Changing in price has a great effect on the consumers mind. They think that there should be some problem with the product so the company is decreasing its product price or the customers may interpret it as the company is closing its business and they will not offer this product in future. On the other hand price increase also affects the buyers in a way that they think that this product is unobtainable unless they buy it soon. They also think that the company is greedy and they are charging more prices for their product. CompetitorÃ¢â¬â¢s Reaction to Price Changes: KNs is aggressive while changing its product price and has to change its product price according to the competitorÃ¢â¬â¢s product price. So KNs keeps its competitors into consideration before lowering or increasing its product prices. Responding to Price Change: If any of the competitors of KNs changes the prices it affects its sales. So KNs analyzes the change and react to it accordingly. Like if they low their price it will decrease its sales so KNs then adopts strategies to increase its sale by lowering its prices, giving discounts or improving quality of its products. PLACE Place include company activities that make the product available to the target customers. For customers, product and service should be as conveniently available as possible. This includes the strategies, how the organization is going to distribute the product or service to the end users. Distributing the right product at right time is the rule of thumb. Efficient and effective distribution is important to meet all the desired marketing objectives of the firm. If the firm is not understanding or underestimating the demand of the customers and customers are not getting the product due this negligence then it is going to affect the overall profitability of the firm in the long run. PLACE MIX DECISIONS: Place mix decisions include designing the strategies for the better availability of the product at the right time to the target customers to achieve organizational objectives. It comprises decisions about: Ã¢â¬ ¢Channels Ã¢â¬ ¢Coverage Ã¢â¬ ¢Assortments Ã¢â¬ ¢Locations Ã¢â¬ ¢Inventory Ã¢â¬ ¢Transportation Ã¢â¬ ¢Logistics CHANNEL OF DISTRIBUTION: Channel of Distribution involves the routes of getting the product from the manufacturer to the ultimate consumer. These channels of distribution are also called intermediaries. There are many types of intermediaries such as wholesalers, agents, retailers, the Internet, overseas distributors, direct marketing (from manufacturer to user without an intermediary), and many others. Types of channel of distribution: There are two types of channel of distribution of the products or services available. Ã¢â¬ ¢Indirect distribution: it involves the distribution of the product by the use of an intermediary for example selling the product to the wholesaler and then on the way to the retailers. Direct distribution: it involves the direct distribution of the product from the manufacturing concern to the consumer, without involvement of any third party or middle men. There is an advantage of direct distribution over indirect distribution that the manufacturer gains complete control over the consumer. The following figures depict the two types of channel distribution. INDIRECT CHANNEL OF DISTRIBUTION DIRECT CHANNEL OF DISTRIBUTION Distribution strategies: Depending on the types of the product, there are three major types of channel of distribution strategies available. . Extensive distribution: It is commonly used to distribute low priced or impulse purchase products e. g. chocolates and sweets etc. 2. Selective distribution: Here a small number of retail outlets are chosen to distribute the product. Selective distribution is common with products such as computers, televisions household appliances, where consumers are willing to shop around and where manufacturers want a large geographical spread. 3. Exclusive distribution: It involves limiting distribution to a single outlet. The product is usually highly priced, and requires the intermediary to place much detail in its sell. An example of would be the sale of vehicles through exclusive dealers. If the manufacturer decides to choose selective or exclusive distribution, then it must select an experienced, creditable and renowned intermediary. COVERAGE: Number of active retail and/or wholesale outlets (relative to a saturation level) that sell a specific firmÃ¢â¬â¢s brands in a given market. Required market coverage is achieved by following concentrated marketing, differentiated marketing, or undifferentiated marketing strategy. Concentrated marketing: Concentrated marketing or niche marketing is market-coverage strategy in which a firm goes after a large share of one or a few segments niches. It appeals to the marketers when company resources are limited. Through niche marketing, the firm achieves a strong market position because of its greater knowledge of consumer needs in the niches it serves and a special reputation it acquires. It can market more effectively by fine tuning its products prices and programs to the needs of carefully defined segment. It can also market efficiently, targeting its products or services, channels and communications programs toward only consumers that it can serve best and most profitably. It is highly profitable but at same time provides with greater than normal risks as companies solely depend on fewer segments for their business and large competitors can enter the same segment with greater resources. Differentiated marketing: Differentiated or segmented marketing is market -coverage strategy in which a firm decides to target several market segments and designs separate offers for each. By offering product and marketing variations, companies hope to get higher sales and strong position in each market segment. But there is a drawback that differentiated marketing for each segment bears a lot of cost to satisfy each target segmentÃ¢â¬â¢s customers. Developing separate marketing plans for the separate segments requires extra marketing research, forecasting, sales analysis, promotion planning, and channel management. Mass marketing: The marketing strategy that provides an opportunity to the organizations to appeal to a wide variety of potential customer is mass marketing or undifferentiated marketing. Here a firm ignores the market differences and go after the whole market with another. The idea is to broadcast the message to the largest number of people possible. Mass marketing creates the largest potential market that yields to lower cost as it focuses on high sales and low prices. Typically, things which are perceived to necessary or essential to the consumer are subject to mass marketing. On the contrary, mass marketing fails to satisfy all consumer needs and face trouble to compete other firms following better marketing approaches. ASSORTMENTS: Assortment means the group or collection of products and services offered in the market for sale. It refers to the variety of the offering being available in the market according to the customerÃ¢â¬â¢s demand. Role of channel members: Channel members play a vital role in assorting the quantity and variety of the products according to the market and consumerÃ¢â¬â¢s needs. Producers use these intermediaries because they create greater efficiency in making goods available to the target markets. Through their contacts, market insight and scale of operation, they transform the assortments of the products made by the producers into assortments wanted by consumers. Producers make narrow assortments of the products in large quantities, but consumers want broad assortments of the products in small quantities. Marketing channel members buy larger quantities of the products from the producers and break them into smaller quantities and broader assortments wanted by consumers. So, intermediaries play an important role in matching the supply and demand in the market. LOCATIONS: The location for the sale of the product is analogous to distribution center. A distribution center for a set of products is a warehouse or other specialized building, often with refrigeration or air conditioning, which is stocked with products (goods) to be re-distributed to retailers, to wholesalers or directly to consumersÃ¢â¬ ¦ A distribution center can also be called a warehouse, a DC, a fulfillment center, a cross-dock facility, a bulk break center, and a package handling center. The name by which the distribution center is known is commonly based on the purpose of the operation. Distribution centers are the foundation of a Ã¢â¬Å"supply networkÃ¢â¬ as they allow a single location to stock a vast number of products. Some organizations operate both retail distribution and direct-to-consumer out of a single facility, sharing space, equipment, labor resources and inventory as applicable. How a distribution center operates? The way a typical retail distribution network operates is to have centers set up throughout a commercial market. Suppliers will ship truckloads of products to the distribution center. The distribution center will then store the product until needed by the retail location and ship the proper quantity. Many retailers own and run their own distribution networks, while smaller retailers may outsource this function to dedicated logistics firms that coordinate the distribution of products for a number of companies. A distribution center can be co-located at a logistics center. Storage at distribution center: Another important secondary role of distribution center is storage. Many retailers have prioritized having as many items in stock at one time as possible. To conserve space, minimize inventory costs, and maximize the variety they offer the retail might only stock one or a few items of a particular product. This requires the ability to ship a replacement quickly once an item is sold. By keeping product on hand in the distribution center, the retailer can ship a replacement almost immediately after a product is sold. Storage location and storage containers: Goods (products) arrive and are stored in a distribution center in varying types of storage locations and containers suited to the product characteristics and the amount of product to be transported or stored. These types of locations and containers have specific industry accepted names. There are specialized and various types of containers. The following is a list of some of the names and characteristics of common storage containers: Ã¢â¬ ¢Intermodal containers (shipping containers) Ã¢â¬â are used for the efficient transportation of goods. There are standards that specify the volume and dimensions of containers to facilitate efficient handling. Ã¢â¬ ¢Pallets- are one of the most commonly used means to store and move product in a distribution center. Pallets are stored on the floor, may be stacked, and may be stored in pallet rack. Ã¢â¬ ¢GaylordÃ¢â¬â¢s- are large single boxes usually connected or attached to a pallet. Cases and Cartons- are boxes usually containing many items. In distribution centers there is a generally accepted distinction made between the terms carton and case although both are boxes. Goods are received and stored in cartons. Goods are shipped in cases. A stored carton is called a case once it has been picked or pulled for shipment. Ã¢â¬ ¢Totes- are reusable containers used to hold and transp ort goods. INVENTORY: Inventory or stock means a list compiled for some formal purpose, a list of goods and materials to the goods and materials themselves, especially those held available in stock by a business. ManufacturersÃ¢â¬â¢, distributorsÃ¢â¬â¢, and wholesalersÃ¢â¬â¢ inventory tends to cluster in warehouses. RetailersÃ¢â¬â¢ inventory may exist in a warehouse or in a shop or store accessible to customers. Reasons for keeping stock: There are three basic reasons for keeping an inventory: 1. Time Ã¢â¬â The time lags present in the supply chain, from supplier to user at every stage, requires that you maintain certain amounts of inventory to use in this Ã¢â¬Å"lead time. Ã¢â¬ 2. Uncertainty Ã¢â¬â Inventories are maintained as buffers to meet uncertainties in demand, supply and movements of goods. 3. Economies of scale Ã¢â¬â Ideal condition of Ã¢â¬Å"one unit at a time at a place where a user needs it, when he needs itÃ¢â¬ principle tends to incur lots of costs in terms of logistics. So bulk buying, movement and storing brings in economies of scale, thus inventory. While the reasons for holding stock were covered earlier, most manufacturing organizations usually divide their Ã¢â¬Å"goods for saleÃ¢â¬ inventory into: Ã¢â¬ ¢Raw materials- materials and components scheduled for use in making a product. Ã¢â¬ ¢Work in process, WIP- materials and components that have begun their transformation to finished goods. Finished goods- goods ready for sale to customers. Ã¢â¬ ¢Goods for resale Ã¢â¬â returned goods that are salable. Inventory management: Inventory management involves a retailer seeking to acquire and maintain a proper merchandise assortment while ordering, shipping, handling, and related costs are kept in check. Systems and processes that identify inventory requir ements, set targets, provide replenishment techniques and report actual and projected inventory status. The improvement of inventory management has two parts: the capability of the organization to manage inventory, and the way in which it chooses to do so. For example, a company may wish to install a complex inventory system, but unless there is a good understanding of the role of inventory and its parameters, and an effective business process to support that, the system cannot bring the necessary benefits to the organization in isolation. Management of the inventories, with the primary objective of determining/controlling stock levels within the physical distribution function to balance the need for product availability against the need for minimizing stock holding and handling costs. TRANSPORTATION: Transport or transportation is the movement of people and goods from one location to another. Modes of transport include air, rail, road, water, cable, pipeline, and space. The field can be divided into infrastructure, vehicles, and operations. Transportation infrastructure: Transport infrastructure consists of the fixed installations necessary for transport, and may be roads, railways, airways, waterways, canals and pipelines, and terminals such as airports, railway stations, bus stations, warehouses, trucking terminals, refueling depots (including fueling docks and fuel stations), and seaports. Terminals may be used both for interchange of passengers and cargo and for maintenance. Vehicles traveling on these networks may include automobiles, bicycles, buses, trains, trucks, people, helicopters, and aircraft. Operations deal with the way the vehicles are operated, and the procedures set for this purpose including financing, legalities and policies. In the transport industry, operations and ownership of infrastructure can be either public or private, depending on the country and mode. LOGISTICS: Logistics can be classified as an enterprise planning framework for material management, information, service and capital flows. In the words, logistics can be defined as having the right type of product or service at the right place, at the right time, for a right price and in the right condition. The primary goal of the logistics is to effectively manage the product life cycles and resultant efficiency. Logistics does not mean a single work activity but refers to a group of activities performed to attain the goal of a business enterprise that is maximizing the Profits. This may involve steps like purchasing, planning, coordination, transportation, warehousing, distribution and customer service. Logistics management: Logistics management is that part of the supply chain which plans, implements and controls the efficient, effective forward and reverse flow and storage of goods, services and related information between the point of origin and the point of consumption in order to meet customer and legal requirements. A professional working in the field of logistics management is called a logistician. Logistics management is known by many names, the most common are as follows: Ã¢â¬ ¢Materials Management Ã¢â¬ ¢Channel Management Ã¢â¬ ¢Distribution (or Physical Distribution) Ã¢â¬ ¢Business or Logistics Management or Ã¢â¬ ¢Supply Chain Management PLACE MIX_K: K chicken products are available at K Chicken Stores and leading retailers and also delivered to quality and food-safety conscious institutions such as hotels, restaurants, airlines, clubs and international restaurant chains. It has a strong supply chain through its distribution channels. In Pakistan K is operating in more than 35 cities. There is very diversity in its distribution. We take the example of Islamabad city . In Islamabad there are many stores as well as retailers in every sector, and only in I-8 there is one K store and 17 retailerÃ¢â¬â¢s shops. DISTRIBUTION OF PRODUCT: After the development of product, product should be distributed into the market for the satisfaction and attraction of our consumers. The products play a vital role in the availability of their services to attract the customers. How to Distribute Product to Retailers: K follows the following ways to distribute product to retailers: Ã¢â¬ ¢Sell Directly to Retailers Sell through distributors, which sell a broad range of products to many retailers Ã¢â¬ ¢Sell through captive distributors, which sell a broad range of products to one chain of retailers. Ã¢â¬ ¢Sell through distributors, which sell to targeted customers. Distribution Channel of Product: The distribution channel of our product is indirect marketing channel because this channe l contains one or more intermediary levels. Cities in which products are available: In Pakistan, K chicken is available in the following cities. Abbottabad, Bahawalpur, Chakwal, Chiniot, Daska, D. G. han, Dharki, Dina, Faisalabad, Farooqabad, Gujar Khan, Gujranwala, Gujrat, Hyderabad, Islamabad, Jaranwala, Jhelum, Kabirwala, Kamra, Karachi, Khanewal, Kharian, Lahore, Lalamusa, Larkana, Machi ghot , Mangla, Mansehra, Mardan, MirpurAJK, Mirpur Methelo, Mirpurkhas, Multan, Murree, Noshehroferoz, Nawabshah, Noshehra, Okara, Panu Aqil, Peshawar, Pitaro, Quetta, Raiwind, Rawalpindi, Rahimyarkhan, Risalpur, Sadiqabad, Sahiwal, Sargodha, Shorkot, Sialkot, Sukkar, Tandoadam and Wah cant. Promotion Strategies: Promotion is the activity in which the company has a chance to interact with its customers. To Promote K uses different promotional tools. These tools include advertisements, sale promotions, public relations, personal selling and direct marketing. Advertisements: It uses informative advertising because it is mostly used when introducing a new product. The objective of it is to build primary demand. It will use the persuasive advertising when it has a competition in the market. Sales Promotions: In sales promotions it uses different discount strategies, giving short term incentives in order to increase its sales. It also introduces sponsorships, memberships and discount coupons. Memberships: K also offers memberships to its customers. The KÃ¢â¬â¢s Way Club membership is free. One can enroll by just filling the form, click submit and simply print the Temporary Card. Temporary card: Having enrolled as a new club member, you can use your Temporary card to earn points with immediate effect. Please remember to always present this Temporary Card while shopping at KNÃ¢â¬â¢s Chicken Store for pointÃ¢â¬â¢s credit into your club account. Club card and pin: Along with your club Member card, you will also receive a 5-digit PIN (Personal Identification Number). You will need this PIN (along with your club card number) to enquire about your account balance; update your individual club profile online, and for all other club online services. As a new member, it is important to know you cannot use our online services, nor redeem your points, until you have received your PIN. One can also enroll oneself by filling out the Enrolment Form available at all KNÃ¢â¬â¢s Chicken Stores and send it to the company. One has to detach The KÃ¢â¬â¢s Way Club Temporary Card and retain it. After becoming the member, KNÃ¢â¬â¢s offers different discounts, exclusive privileges and other benefits to its members when they collect points. The more they collect, the more they benefit. As a member every time you shop at any KNÃ¢â¬â¢s Chicken Store in Pakistan, you earn valuable points which can be redeemed for free KNÃ¢â¬â¢s products. Number of points: Number of points earned is directly related to purchase amount, K product category and your status within The KÃ¢â¬â¢s Way Club. You earn 2. 50 status and award points for every Rs. 0/- spent on Whole Chicken, Designer Cuts and By-Parts. For Boneless products you earn 3. 50 points, while for Ready-to-Cook, Fully Cooked and Deli Line Products you earn 5 points for the same amount spent. Your club status determines whether you will be able to enjoy additional benefits and privileges associated with Silver, Gold or Circle status within The KNÃ¢â¬â¢s W ay Club Program. Award points: Award points are earned every time you shop at a KNÃ¢â¬â¢s Chicken Store. As the name suggests, award points can be exchanged for awards, such as free KNÃ¢â¬â¢s products and special discounts. Award points can also be earned against special KÃ¢â¬â¢s product offers and promotions from time to time. Award points do not count towards determining club status. Status points: Status points are earned simultaneously with award points every time you shop at a KNÃ¢â¬â¢s Chicken Store. As the name suggests, status points determine club status and enable you to move towards and/or retain the higher Silver, Gold or Circle status. Certain limited time promotions or special offers may be excluded from status pointsÃ¢â¬â¢ accrual. Executive bonus: A higher status of Silver, Gold or Circle within the Club also entitles you to an Executive Bonus on award points earned, even for the same purchase amount. If you have Silver status, you earn 25%. Gold status entitles you to 50%, while Circle status gives you 100% Executive Bonus. Executive Bonus is not applicable on Status Points. Member: Once you have reached 50 status points KNÃ¢â¬â¢s welcomes you as a permanent Member of The KNÃ¢â¬â¢s Way Club where a world of privileges, attractive awards and benefits are offered to the customers on their future shopping. Silver: Attaining Silver status is easy and within reach. To start with, a customer has to earn 25% Executive Bonus award points on every purchase he makes, and enjoy a host of other privileges designed for the Silver members. Gold: A customer has to earn required number of status points and he gets the Gold status The KÃ¢â¬â¢s Way Gold members get as much as 50% Executive Bonus award points on purchases, 6 discount eVouchers in a calendar year for attaining or extending the status each time, and other privileges designed only for the Gold members. Circle: The KNÃ¢â¬â¢s Way Circle status recognizes the loyalty of the exceptional customers. It offers these privileges as an expression of their utmost appreciation for the loyalty of their exclusive Ã¢â¬ËcircleÃ¢â¬â¢ of such customers. For instance, if a customer treats himself to 100% Executive Bonus award points on his purchases, 12 discount eVouchers in a calendar year for attaining or maintaining the status each time and other privileges designed exclusively for their Circle members. Personal Selling It also promotes its product through personal selling. Personal selling is more effective than any other promotion strategy. Through personal communication, it is easy to persuade someone to buy your product, because in personal selling there is a direct contact with the buyers. Public Relations: To increase its sales it also ties good public relations. KNÃ¢â¬â¢s develops its public relation by doing the work of social responsibility, like wishing happy Eid or wishing any other special event to the customers. Through Public relations it also creates a good word of mouth for the product which is the most efficient way of promoting a product. Direct Marketing: In direct marketing KNÃ¢â¬â¢s targets its customers through internet, telephone, print media and electronic media (television and radio). Print Media: It promotes its product through print media by advertising its product in newspapers and in different magazines. KNÃ¢â¬â¢s adopts this type of advertising when it wants to introduce some new discount packages or sales offers. Other then advertising in newspapers and in magazines it also advertises its product on bill boards and banners. Electronic Media: To promote its product through electronic media KNÃ¢â¬â¢s advertises its product on different television channels and on radio stations. To make its product information more convenient and easy it provides its website and 24 hours toll free numbers, through which the customers can contact and also give feedback about the product. The website of KNÃ¢â¬â¢s is http://www. kandns. com Promotion for kids: To make its products favorite among kids, KNÃ¢â¬â¢s introduced a product called Ã¢â¬Å"Fun NuggetsÃ¢â¬ . It has designed special advertisements for children. As kids are more attracted by cartoons, KNÃ¢â¬â¢s has used cartoon characters like dinosaurs, dolphins and ducks and have given them special names like Din Din, Dolf and Ducky to make their products familiar with kids. KNÃ¢â¬â¢s Cooking show: To promote its product, KNÃ¢â¬â¢s has now brought a dedicated cooking show for quick recipes with answers to all viewersÃ¢â¬â¢ Ã¢â¬Ëhow do you do thatÃ¢â¬â¢ questions, and helpful tips Ã¢â¬â all at Smart Cooking with KÃ¢â¬â¢s! Chef Mehboob Khan is the name consumers trust and count on for reliable and tasteful recipes. People can now watch him use a wide range of KNÃ¢â¬â¢s chicken products for easy-to-prepare recipes like Lahori Karahi, Chicken Ala Kiev, or Fajita Wraps. Smart Cooking with KNÃ¢â¬â¢s is aired on every Saturday 6:30pm, Sunday 4:00pm and Wednesday 2:00pm, on ARY Zauq. In this winter, to promote its products, K has now offered discounts on its products like Croquettes and chapli kabab. Similarly, in Ramazan, K offered its members to get 50% bonus award points on all of its products. In the same way, it had offered its members price discounts on Haray Bharay Nuggets and Tender Pops in Ramazan. Other then the print and electronic media the cheapest way to promote the product is through Short messaging service: They have a contract with different cellular companies where they will send K promotional messages to their special numbers. K face book page: K has also created face book page. Now-a-days, many companies, designers and artists are making their fan pages on face book for the advertisements of their products. People go on these pages, learn about the products, give their comments, resolve their queries and recommend these pages to their friends. In the same way, K has made its face book page to advertise its products. Its face book link is: http://www. facebook. com/pages/KNs-Chicken/120891524596651 Promotion Budget: To allocate budget for the promotion strategies K uses objective and task method. According to this method first it defines its promotion objectives, that why are they promoting their product? After that they determine different tasks to accomplish those objectives and at the end they estimate the cost utilized in performing these tasks. PRODUCT POSITIONING It is the evaluation of a companyÃ¢â¬â¢s productÃ¢â¬â¢s position that what place it occupies in the market and how customers differentiate it from other products. Choosing positioning strategy To position the product different companies use different positioning strategies. Major competitors: Major competitors of K and N are Ã¢â¬ ¢Kitchen confidence. Ã¢â¬ ¢Mano Salva, Ã¢â¬ ¢ seasons canola`s menu Ã¢â¬ ¢Locally available chicken Kitchen Confidence basically produces frozen products like Chicken Nuggets. Burger Patties, Meat balls, Samosa,Rolls etc. Recently co. has started non frozen item i. e. Bread Crumbs. Salwa Foods offers an assortment of deep frozen food products for both retailers and food service. The assortment ranges from basic standard products to highly refined ready-made products. Salwa foods have launched its ready to cook items under the name of Mano Salwa. SeasonÃ¢â¬â¢s canola has launched its range of ready to cook food items with the name of menu. But the largest of the competitors that was a challenge to K and N was the locally available chicken in the market. It had the stereotypic advantage of being truly Halal and cheap than any kind of chicken available in packets in frozen form. Competitive Advantages Following are the competitive advantages that make it different K N from rest of its competitors. Product Differentiation: We offer a pack of four. Each separately wrapped in butter paper, combined packed in sealed plastic bags that are safe for health, and then finally packed in the box. Service Differentiation: Our product will be accessible and will be available at every outlet of K. Channel differentiation: In Pakistan K is operating in more than 35 cities. There is very diversity in its distribution. We take the example of Islamabad city . In Islamabad there are many stores as well as retailers in every sector, and only in I-8 there is one K store and 17retailerÃ¢â¬â¢s shops. People differentiation: Technology is highly involved in the production so we will hire trained staff, those who knows how to operate the machines. We also hire qualified staff in order to guarantee healthy relationship between customers and retailers. Image differentiation: Since our product comes under K brand name hence a good image will be casted over the consumers. Also K is a symbol of quality; hence will automatically be recognized as a quality product. Product Chain K are enjoying their own product chain. They have their own breading and poultry forms, from where they get there raw material for their product. Choosing the right competitive advantage Ã¢â¬ ¢Important: We deliver highly valued benefits to our target customers in our products. Ã¢â¬ ¢Distinctive: we have no strong competitor and enjoy distinctiveness in the market. Ã¢â¬ ¢Superior: we are providing pure hygienic food in at comparable prices. Ã¢â¬ ¢Communicable: the consumers can feel the difference in our quality, taste, hygiene and prices that are communicable. Preemptive: competitor needs a lot and lot of hard work to match our standard else it is not possible. Ã¢â¬ ¢Affordable: Buyer can afford to pay for the difference. Ã¢â¬ ¢Profitable: the difference is profitable both for the company and the customers. Selecting an overall positioning strategy Our overall positioning strategy will be focused on More for Less winning value proposition i. e. will offer more qu ality at less price range and we will focus on the needs and wants of target customers in order to give high customer value and satisfaction POSITIONING STATEMENT To target the teenagers, working women, hostilities and bachelors, we offer, a ready to eat hot and spicy paratha, with high quality, affordability and accessibility. Conclusion We have come to a conclusion that K is the most superior and famous quality delivering company. Its Promotion through advertising is highly frequent on different TV channels. It has differentiated itself from its competitors by having highly trained sales person with different discount allowances and coupons. It has developed strong bonds with its customers. It How to cite K Final Report, Essay examples
Sunday, December 8, 2019
Question: Identify an individual organisation that utilises sustainable practices. Take the following steps: 1. Select an organisation that you can easily access information about. 2. Identify its sustainable practices these may be human, physical environmental or other. 3. Discuss them in detail. 4. Comment on their value to the organisation and other relevant stakeholders. 5. Describe how you will measure this value. 6. Critically appraise future prospects for the organisation, if appropriate. 7. Reconcile the sustainable practices with the literature/theory and/or best practice. Answer: Introduction Woolworth is considered as the most renowned and successful brand of Australian retail market and this is known as the largest grocery market in the international market place. Both of the company accounts for almost 80% of the market share in the market of Australia (Shape Your World, 2014). Till the year 2014, the total number of stores presents in the country Australia accounts for 872 and in the market of New Zeland the company has total 156 supermarkets. The company has undertaken the steps to go to in the international market through engaging itself in the external environment of the organization and through taking various policies related to the sustainability. External engagement of the organization The advisory group has been formulated by the organization, Woolworth for attaining the sustainability. The advisory group comprises of the leaders from different fields and those are the leaders who are expert in the environment related study, the leaders who are expert in the studies related to the corporate social responsibility and there is a person who knows regarding the sustainability issues (Doing the right thing, Sustainability Strategy 20072015, 2015). The company has made some partnerships for the achievement of the sustainability and the partnerships are made with different groups and those are Landcare Australia, Ethical sourcing, CSIRO and with the Australian food and the grocery Council (Turner, etal, 2003). The company Woolworth is associating with the Landcare group for the purpose of the sustainable farming and the programs which is used as Drought Grants Partnership. There will be various projects which will take the permission of grouping in the sustainability and those projects will be operated under the guidance of the Landcare and the staffs of the organization Woolworth will get the opportunity to volunteer the projects. CSIRO which has introduced the programs related to the Future fuels program is basically a research program which is being organization for the purpose of bringing the stakeholders group together (Shape Your World, 2014).. With engaging in the partnership with the Australian food council and the grocery Council a debate is organized in the concept of carbon foot printing scheme (Jones, etal, 1980). The company is organizing the programs for educating the consumer base of the company for the purpose of showing how the process of recycle is going on in the context of the company and how the contamination are being reduced from the ingredients used in the products (Holme and Watts, 1999). Sustainability through the engagement of the stakeholder The stakeholder engagement policy is used throughout the overall business environment for the purpose of the achievement of the sustainability. The company has a large employee base and the company accounts for 180,000 employees throughout various geographic bases. Though it is quite difficult for the company to implement the sustainability practice throughout the employees of the organization but, it is also true that for the company Woolworth the quality of the products is an important issue. The initiatives for the sustainability are undertaken from the ideas gathered from employees and also from the other stakeholders of the organization Woolworth. The employees are engaged in the initiatives taken for the sustainability program through engaging them into the awareness program undertaken by the organization. Apart from the environmental correction the company also undertakes the policies regarding the empowerment of the employees. The employees are provided the knowledge regardin g the mission and the vision of the organization and the employees are provided the training regarding how to educate the college regarding the issues related to the sustainability or how to influence the colleges in the matter of the sustainability. Formulation of the working groups Numerous working groups are being formed by the organization in order to establish and spread the strategies regarding the sustainability. Mainly in case of the development of the strategies on the issues involved the energies and green house gases the organization has taken various steps including setting the target for green house emissions, target for the sustainable transport facilities. The organization has set the criteria for packaging and other practical issues related to the environmental issues. Different employees from various groups will be selected for the implementation of the strategic plan. Corporate social responsibility The company has set a separate strategy for the sustainable development through the implementation of the corporate social responsibility in the context of the organization. Mainly to maintain the brand image of the company and also the reputation of the company the organization undertakes the corporate social responsibility and the company also considers the regulatory requirement of the countries in which it operate (Cullingford and Blewitt, 2013). The credit Union of the organization Woolworth is accountable for maintaining the ethics and the social responsibility in the everyday basis operation of the company (Ness, 1992). The company provides the funding for the course and the candidate can get the insight especially, the academic insights related to the agricultural study. In the other corporate social responsibility related programs like the community support programs through which the organization provides charity. The company has also initiated the fresh food program in whic h the company does rescue the food which is considered as wastage and delivers that food to the deprived and the needy people in the society (Fernald, etal, 2012). There is a program introduced by the organization Woolworth which is based on the Fresh food future program and which aims in investing in the rural areas of the country Australia. The sustainability through adopting the sustainable sources The sustainable growth of the organization Woolworth depends on the fresh food products sourcing. The company has invested in reducing the carbon which accounts for AUD 66.5 million and which aims to enhance the efficiency of the organization. The investment has helped to reduce the operation cost of the brand which accounts for AUD 110.9 million within the year 2015. The company has aimed to attain the sustainability through the development of the animal welfare and the company is going to be a member of the Sustainable Palm oil (Turner, etal, 2003). The guidelines for sustainability of the new stores of Woolworth The consumer preferences for the semi-prepared meals have increased the need for the energy usage of the new stores. For fitting the refrigerator, air conditioning and the other equipments for a long term basis ( generally for 10 years of time period) it is necessary to make decisions which help to provide the sustainable development in the context of the organization. The generation of the renewable energy in the sites and the energy from the solar power can help for the sustainable development and for the future sustainable strategic development (Carroll and Buchholtz, 2014). In case of transport there can be two different ways through which the environment negative impacts on the transport can be reduced and in this case, the maximization of the vehicle space is required and the usage of the special feet is also required. The company has the objective for the reduction of the 25% of the CO2 and to increase the use of the alternate fuels by 13%. In the retail industry though water does not require to a large extent but, the source of water should be secured enough (Dyllick and Muff, 2013). Conclusion The company Woolworth has taken the initiatives for the sustainability mainly by two different ways and those are the environment security or protection and the other way is the corporate social responsibility (Gibson, etal, 2013). The environmental protection and the employee empowerment are the two key issues which can affect the sustainability of the organization Woolworth and also the long term competitive advantage of the company. For protecting the environment the organization has planned various programs which aim to reduce the C02 and the other environmental negative impacts from the market. The corporate social responsibility is another aspect in which the company can target for the sustainability. The corporate social responsibility does not only help to enhance the features and the brand image of the organization but, it also helps to enhance the long term sustainability of the organization. Reference Doing the right thing | Sustainability Strategy 20072015. (2015). 1st ed. [ebook] Wool Worths Limited. Shape Your World, (2014). Company Profile: Woolworths International - Shape Your World. Jones, T. M., Indexes, S., Register, E. I., Socially, M. (1980). Corporate social responsibility. California Management Review, 22(2). Holme, R., Watts, P. (1999). Corporate social responsibility. Geneva: World Business Council for Sustainable Development. Ness, M. R. (1992). Corporate social responsibility. British food journal, 94(7), 38-44. Carroll, A., Buchholtz, A. (2014). Business and society: Ethics, sustainability, and stakeholder management.UK: Cengage Learning. Turner, B. L., Kasperson, R. E., Matson, P. A., McCarthy, J. J., Corell, R. W., Christensen, L., ... Schiller, A. (2003). A framework for vulnerability analysis in sustainability science. Proceedings of the national academy of sciences, 100(14), 8074-8079. Dyllick, T. L., Muff, K. (2013). Clarifying the Meaning of Sustainable Business: Introducing a Typology from Business-as-Usual to True Business Sustainability. Available at SSRN 2368735. Gibson, B., Hassan, S., Tansey, J. (2013). Sustainability assessment: criteria and processes. UK: Routledge. Cullingford, C., Blewitt, J. (Eds.). (2013). The Sustainability Curriculum: The challenge for higher education. uk: Routledge. Fernald, A., Tidwell, V., Rivera, J., Rodrguez, S., Guldan, S., Steele, C., ... Cibils, A. (2012). Modeling sustainability of water, environment, livelihood, and culture in traditional irrigation communities and their linked watersheds. Sustainability, 4(11), 2998-3022.
Saturday, November 30, 2019
The Hurricane Essay The film, The Hurricane, directed by Rudy Langlais is a powerful production which explores issues and discourses around race and racism. I will begin with a brief description of the film before I begin my analysis. The movie is based on a true story and is set in America from the 1950s through to the 1980s. Rubin Hurricane Carter, an African American, has spent more than half of his life in prison starting from the age of eleven, for crimes he was wrongfully convicted. White authorities did everything in their power but also corrupted the legal system to place and keep Rubin (Hurricane) Carter in prison simply because of his race. After spending twenty years in State prison for being wrongly convicted of a triple murder, Rubin was set free after a young African American boy and three white American citizens fought to free him. I will explore and analyse three of the dominant discourses about race in the film for the purpose of this essay. However, I believe it is important to first answer the question: What is a discourse? A discourse is a system of statements which constructs an object. To elaborate further, theorist Foucault believes discourses are about what can be said and thought, but also about who can speak, when, and with what authority (Robinson Jones Diaz, 1999, p. 4). Therefore, discourses are intimately linked with the way society is organised as it impacts on peoples identity having implications for they can do and what they should do. Consequently, ones subjectivity and power will be constructed by the discourses that are historically and culturally available to them (Robinson Jones Diaz, 1999, p. 4). The three discourses that I will discuss in this essay is clearly defined by the language and actions portrayed in this film. The first discourse is that black people are second class citizens prone to uncivilized behaviour. Secondly, the socially constructed notion of whiteness signifies power and privilege. The third discourse I will discuss is that all white people are racists. These broad issues have implications for early childhood education and this will also be discussed briefly in this essay. We will write a custom essay sample on The Hurricane specifically for you for only $16.38 $13.9/page Order now We will write a custom essay sample on The Hurricane specifically for you FOR ONLY $16.38 $13.9/page Hire Writer We will write a custom essay sample on The Hurricane specifically for you FOR ONLY $16.38 $13.9/page Hire Writer The discourse that all black people are second class citizens and prone to uncivilized behaviour was a truth that originated during the colonisation of America back in the eighteenth and nineteenth century. After the European settlers killed off countless numbers of Native Americans, they imported people from Africa to come and work in America as slaves on plantations. The Europeans viewed them as inferior human beings who are irrational, disorderly, prone to uncivilized behaviour and practically subhuman (Institute of Race Relations, 1982). So what was it that made the Europeans believe that black people were indeed a savage race? It was the notion of Darwinism, philosophised by Charles Darwin in the 1880s that allowed such discourses to be maintained and accepted as truth. Darwin believed that different groups of human beings or races evolved over hundreds and thousands, even millions of years at different rates and times, and so, some groups were more like their ape-like ancestors than others. He held certain that the black race came from gorillas and were the least developed, whereas the white race came from chimpanzees and were the highest, most evolved race (Jim, 2002). Therefore the white race was naturally and biologically seen as being more superior to any other race. This view was assumed to be proven and thus lead to the idea that social relationships are natural. As a result, permanent black inferiority remained the dominant scientific hypothesis. By the 1920s, text books supported the idea that man had evolved from a lower life form developing into varying degrees of accomplishment. Information such as, white people being naturally superior and black people being inferior and more ape-like, was commonly reflected in science books published from 1880 to 1980 (Jim, 2002). The fact that racial prejudice became naturalised, universalised and seen as being a scientific fact, explains why attitudes of racial inferiority have continued to plague western culture. For exa mple, statistics show that the majority of white people in America believe that African Americans are more violent, less intelligent and not as hard working as white people (Jim, 2002). In The Hurricane, discourses of black inferiority was upheld by powerful institutions such as the legal system, as police officers had the right to arrest and punish black people without significant proof of their conviction. For example, when young Rubin Carter was forced into a police station after being wrongfully accused of harming a white man, the police sergeant had said to the officer, Its a nigger with a knife. I dont care how old he is. Take care of him. The judge at the hearing had then said to Rubin, I only wish you were old enough, Id send you to state prison. These examples show that societal power reinforces discourses as it persuades people into taking up the dominant position of the discourse. As explained by Robinson and Jones-Diaz (1999), those people who are located outside the dominant discourse, in this case the black people, will frequently experience inequities, diminished power, and little or no support from the dominant culture for their truths about the worl d. The socially constructed notion of whiteness signifies power and privilege. This discourse began shaping itself since the European colonisation of America. Since it became a truth that the white race naturally had a more exalted destiny than any other race, non-whites became constantly undermined and alienated both as human beings and as members of society. Therefore, being white becomes the invisible norm in society representing an authoritative, delimited and hierarchical mode of thought (Kicheloe ; Steinberg, 1997, p. 4). A binary opposite is then discursively formed between whites and non-whites within the contradictory nature of whiteness being both a dominant culture and a non-culture. This means that discourses of being white are the opposite of the discourses of being a non-white. For example, the discourse that whiteness represents orderliness, rationality, and self-control and non-whiteness represents chaos, irrationality, violence and uncivilized behaviour (Kicheloe ; Stei nberg, 1997, p. 17). This discourse of white privilege is strongly exposed throughout this film by the means of language. It is the use of language that allow dominant discourses to prevail in society since this is the manner in which knowledge or truth is passed on from one person to another. Conversations held between black and white people in the film reveal to us the discourse of white supremacy. For instance, when Rubin Carter arrived at the scene of the crime in his car accompanied by another black man, a white police officer (who had not witnessed the crime), said to Rubin, Were looking for two negros in a car, to which Rubin shrewdly replied, Any two will do? This example shows us that white people or white authorities unconsciously assume that only black people are capable of such uncivilised acts. As supported by Kicheloe and Steinberg (1997), In order for whiteness to place itself in the privilege seat of rationality and superiority, it would have to construct pervasive portraits of non-whites (p. 4) This method therefore, was an approach whereby whiteness could sustain and maintain its position of power and privilege over other races. Hence, the ideology white meritocracy justified itself in the midst of inequality. The previous two discourses examined, answers the third discourse that all white people are racists. Americas history of racial discrimination within the construction of its social order explains to me why many people of colour today believe that all white people are racists. This however, this is merely a discourse seeing as it stereotypes all white people into a single category. Another explanation of why this discourse exists today is expressed by Hitchcock (1999), who considers that society itself is racist, giving all white people racial privileges and hence making them racists whether they like it or not. This belief, however, ignores the fact that many white people today are in fact trying to challenge white supremacy. For example, Challenging White Supremacy Workshops are conducted in America for white social justice activists who want to work for racial justice and challenge white privilege in all their social justice work (Ponder, 1997). Hence, this discourse that all white people are racists is in fact being challenged in American society today. In the film, Rubin (Hurricane) Carter takes on the belief that all white people are racists. After spending almost twenty years in state prison, Rubin expresses a feeling of shock and hate when his African American friend introduces him to three white folks who want to help Rubin get out of prison. Rubin says to his African American friend, I dont want to talk to them, just go. However, the three white folks, determined to release Rubin, challenge white supremacy after being threatened by white authorities to stay away from Rubin and leave town. The white woman strongly defies this threat by telling the authorities that she was not going to leave the town until she sees Rubin get set free. The white citizens in the film, for that reason, are directly challenging white supremacy and racial injustice. Hence, the discourse that all white people are racists have been challenged, and the truth that Rubin held in relation to this discourse had been deconstructed and reconstructed, leading him to a new and a more equitable way of looking at the world (Robinson Jones Diaz, 1999). The issues discussed in this essay have strong implications for educators both in schools and in early childhood environments. Schools are directly involved in the development of ideologies in their students, including racial ideologies. Therefore, schools must be populated with teachers who bring diverse worldviews and experiences that expose, challenge and deconstruct racism rather than tacitly accepting it (Sleeter, 1999, p.12). This method of education will serve the interests of diverse population and not just present the racial and social class structure. The position of privilege that many white teachers inhibit and take for granted, which they have constructed over their lifetimes is what most of them use to understand the topic of race, and therefore what they may pass on to their students. Educators of colour on the other hand, are less likely to marginalize minority intellectual discourses (Sleeter, 1999, p. 13). As educators of colour are in a less dominant position on th e so called illusory hierarchy of society, which automatically places whiteness at the top of the scale, they will more likely bring life experiences and viewpoints that critique white supremacy than the white teachers. Being an early childhood educator, I realise that it is important to implicate a variety of strategies within child care centres that embrace cultural diversity. This includes valuing and representing different languages, religions and customs in all areas of the curriculum (Henderson, 1998). For example, in the dramatic play area, clothes and equipment could be set up that represent different cultures, such as, woks, chopsticks, white dolls and coloured dolls, books written in different languages, as well as traditional outfits from a variety of different cultures. Music and songs may also be sung in languages such as Greek, Aboriginal, Italian, Spanish, or whatever languages are represented in the centre. This will also encourage bilingual children to use their home language within the centre. Employing bilingual staff is also useful, as they can communicate their language to other children who speak the same language, thus encouraging them to continue using their home language. Fo od from a variety of different cultures may also be served to children so that they become aware of the wide range of foods available in the world. These are just some examples early childhood educators may use in their centres. The purpose of implementing such strategies is to help close the gap between the cultures of the community and within early childhood settings. This cultural adaptation will inturn ease the transition of minority children into the dominant culture. In conclusion, it can be said that race and racism is a complex issue that has been historically and culturally constructed over a long period of time. Racial attitudes still prevail in American society today because it has been so heavily engraved in the construction of their history. Now that we know that no race is superior to another, the word race should be abandoned completely because it is now meaningless. Scientists have found that differences that set us apart are cultural, not racial (Jim, 2002). That is why the word race has been place in inverted commas throughout this essay. The idea of white identity in dominance must also be abandoned so that everyone can be more accepting of cultural diversity flourishing in society and acknowledge the hybridity of people today. These issues have a strong impact upon educators, as they must implement appropriate strategies to help students feel comfortable and proud of their own culture when entering into a dominant culture.